In addition, the Hamburg plant manufactures and equips the rear fuselage sections for Airbus’ A330 and A350 XWB programmes. Figure 1 shows a familiar graph that shows the increase in composites usage in military and commercial aircraft over time. Process 2600 begins by holding a first fuselage section 104 in a cradle system 108 (operation 2602). Actually, winding on a male mold is fast, and the number of assembly operations, costly in terms of manufacturing steps, is reduced (no longitudinal joints). The approach Spirit applied is very similar to the one used on the 787 with the exception of the use of sector panels instead of a one piece barrel breakdown mandrel (Figure 21). Boeing was a prime subcontractor on the program and built the wing skins using Automated Tape Laying (ATL). Alan Hiken (December 28th 2018). According to the disclosed embodiments, the section of composite material is manufactured in a single piece by the procedure described above. Controlling these elements is necessary to minimize gaps and interference fit between cured detail components. Both extremes are successfully being used by different fabrication partners. The IML tool requires less labor and risk for locating and maintaining locations of stiffeners and other elements and is much more simple to bag (Figures 17–20). For details about the hull manufacturing process, contact Ted VanDeusen at Composite Engineering in Concord, Massachusetts. One significant difference (if not THE most significant difference) is the frame integration to the fuselage. The mechanically fastened frame approach greatly reduces the complexity of IML tooling needed to cocure the hat stiffeners and cobond the frames. 6 represents this hypothesis, on the one hand with the cylinder of length b and opening d, and on the other hand, the secured strip with a deflection b/2. It has been a methodical, tenacious process that has included determined efforts by resources from the military and defense department, academia and many industry participants. The fabrication of large composite fuselage structures was also enabled by the tooling required to support it. The use of robotics in composite manufacturing is growing at a rapid rate and is probably the most promising technology for the future. All use AFP over IML controlled male layup mandrels that also serve as cure tools. A composite wing allows for a very high degree of laminate tailoring and can be designed and built for maximum efficiency. the two openings located at one end and the other of the section. Ultrasound is the current NDE method of choice to inspect large fiber reinforced airframe structures. 1 represents an example of an aircraft made from panels. In the case of an aircraft with a metal fuselage, the lightning current is drained to the metal skin so that very little electrical current is injected into the interior of the aircraft. Section 44 is a composite half barrel section that covers the main wing box. These were former Boeing Stratocruisers from the 1940s that had been converted with custom fuselages and turbine engines. The natural draft angles allow for cured part removal by simply sliding the cured part off the mandrel. It is then possible to close up the section by overlapping the two edges on one another to make a longitudinal joint on these superimposed edges. The Boeing 777X has incorporated a composite wing into the design. This also plays to the argument for a combined IML controlled layup mandrel and cure tool—as Boeing selected for the 787 program. Hat stiffeners used solid silicone mandrels located longitudinally along the IML of the skin panels for cocuring. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. 7 represents a cross section of the section of the disclosed embodiments after reassembly and joining. But composite wings for high rates present challenges. The cauls are floating on the surface of the skin and move with the skin during cure to establish the cured part OML whenever and wherever it is at the time the resin gels and things stop moving. In other words, this difference in diameter provides for an overlap joint while fully restoring the mutual fit between sections. The program helped Boeing better understand the assembly loads related to composite panel warpage from cured part spring back and cocured and/or cobonded stiffener or frame mislocation. Method for manufacturing an aircraft fuselage section of composite material, comprising the following operations: manufacturing a one-piece section; cutting the section longitudinally; spreading apart two edges located on the two sides of the cut; reassembling the section and making a longitudinal joint with the two edges overlapping. Airbus continuous pultrusion equipment [4]. that approach can be. 2. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. “Ultimately for many manufacturing processes, you have to create a lot of force, making things quite hot; both of those require a lot of energy – and you don’t want to be doing that again.” In an automated process, however, Giddings thinks that manufacturers have a better chance of getting the process right the first time around, which therefore means they won’t scrap components. 2, already described, represents an example of a fuselage section of composite material made in one piece. The advantages for composites on large, wide body aircraft have been validated by the short service history of the 787 and even shorter history of the A350. The ACT program demonstrated how the producibility of large, integrated, composite fuselage structures depend heavily on the tooling to ensure compatibility of the skin cure tool, the cocured or cobonded stringer tooling and the frame tooling. The dry fiber/wet resin tow had evolved to prepreg tow in an attempt to improve process consistency. 2. When compared with the quality and consistency of parts made with prepreg tape, tow preg and subsequent prepreg tow, was not acceptable. when two fuselage bodies were lined up in a major aircraft assembly process. Source: Boeing, Airbus. The skin of a composite fuselage allows for greater tailoring of the skin thickness than is usually incorporated into a metal fuselage. The disclosed embodiments also relate to a section made in accordance with this method. In this example, the sections T1, T2, and T3 are each made from four panels. Everything from tack of the initial plies to the tool surface, to overlaps and gaps in the laminate; the most efficient ways to handle window/door cutouts, laminate thickness transitions, lay-up rates for flat, curved, cylindrical and duct shaped parts, etc., etc. Actually, to protect the aircraft and its passengers when the aircraft is struck by lightning, it is important to place all of the equipment of the aircraft at the same electrical potential and to ground all of this equipment to the metal elements of said aircraft by metallization, in order to drain the direct or indirect currents from the lightning. The area selected for study was identified as Section 46 on Boeing wide body aircraft (Figure 10). The state-of-practice for dual aisle, wide body commercial aircraft fuselages has evolved over the past generation from minor aerodynamic composite fairings and flaps to entire composite fuselage structures. While those early blades were built with lower manufacturing costs, the argument can be made that many of those blades failed very early in their lifecycle and required costly repairs or replacement to generate electricity. The structural arrangement shown in Figure 12 is very similar to the configurations that ended up on both the 787 and A350 programs. Aircraft fuselage made out with composite material and manufacturing processes. At the base, the fuselage is skin is thicker because it carries more load related to passengers, cargo and landing gear. the cut is made on a lateral area of the section. In this example, there is the skin 1 of the section and a lateral opening 3. The official name was originally Super Transporter, but the name Beluga, a whale, gained popularity based on the appearance of the airplane and has been officially adopted. 5A and 5B represent the cross section of FIGS. It is hypothesized that this opening on the cylinder is equivalent to a secured strip of length πR and width b, whose deflection under the effect of the spreading action is b/2. The disclosed embodiments find applications in the field of aeronautics and in particular, in the field of designing aircraft fuselage sections of composite material. Flexible caul plates and custom fit reusable bags became part of the tooling system needed to accomplish the fully integrated skin/stringer/frame structure. Each hull is 18 ft (5.5 m) long and weighs 7 lbs (3.2 kg). This difference in diameter corresponds to the area of overlap of the margins of the cut necessary to make the joint of said margins. Source: CTC Stade. NDT methods currently used in aerospace applications span a broad range of technologies, from the simple coin tap test to fully automated, computerized systems that can inspect very large parts (Figures 23 and 24). This hybrid fabrication approach allows the use of preform laminates instead of being limited to unidirectional reinforcements like traditional pultrusion and supports continuous production instead of batch processing associated with the traditional RTM. Spirit cocures the omegas using an IML controlled layup/cure tool with a stiff composite caul plate to control the aerodynamic OML surface smoothness. The mold can be a male mold with the shape of a tubular cylinder, for example. In other respects, sensitivity analysis shows that the force to be applied to spread the edges of the section is inversely proportional to the cube of the radius of the section. The ATCAS team envisioned scenarios that included full one piece barrel fabrication. It also has the drawback of requiring joints between the metal panels and between the sections, which creates overlapping areas with excess thickness, further increasing the weight of the aircraft. At this same time Rubbercraft was working with engineers on the C-17 program to develop and manufacture inflatable silicone bladders for use on the replacement composite tail (Figure 15). The fuselage skins of Airbus aircrafts certified up to 2001 were made of 2024T3, T42 or T351. The result of this analysis is that for a final section diameter Ddesign, the initial section, i.e. The structural arrangements and assembly methods used by both programs are remarkably similar. A quadrant panel approach was selected for study as shown in Figure 11. As will be explained in further detail below, in the method of the disclosed embodiments each section is made in a single piece with a diameter noticeably larger than the desired diameter for the final section. Source: Premium Aerotec. 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2020 fuselage manufacturing process