After it was re-introduced, the number of private HEIs grew substantially, helping to absorb the rising demand for higher education. According to the 2017 Population Census, 36.4 percent of the population lives in urban areas. The traditional English-speaking international study destinations, Australia and the U.S., are currently the top choices among Pakistani degree-seeking students, as per UNESCO statistics. While there are six Indian institutions included among the top 500 in the current 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, for instance, Quaid-i-Azam University is the only Pakistani institution featured in this group (at position 401â500). miles). In these fields, the Bachelor of Eastern Medicine and Surgery is awarded upon completion of a five-year program and one-year clinical internship recognized by the National Council for Tibb. Soc Sci Med. These objectives were further broken down for primary, middle, and lower and higher secondary school levels. Routledge. Whereas 65 percent of fifth graders in Punjab province were able to read English sentences in 2018, only 34 percent of fifth graders in Baluchistan were able to do the same. A steering body attached to the MFEPâthe Inter Board Committee of Chairmenâcoordinates curricula and examination-related matters between the different boards. Promoting Better Management of Migration in Nigeria: Needs assessment of the Nigerian Education Sector. Prominent Pakistani academic Pervez Hoodbhoy, for instance, noted that it isnât feasible to teach students in remote rural regions like the federally administered tribal areas the same curriculum taught in rich urban neighborhoods in Karachi. Note, however, that the expensive private prep schools that teach British curricula like the Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) cater mostly to wealthy elites and are out of reach for most ordinary Pakistani households. Beyond the dearth of funds, many observers note that the efficiency of the Pakistani system is also undermined by poorly managed top-down governance structures, a lack of qualified faculty and cooperation between institutions, red tape, comparatively high levels of corruption, and patronage networks in which positions are filled based on political allegiances rather than objective qualifications. 2. This move, while placing decision-making and funding into the hands of those with a greater understanding of local needs, has also created a fragmented system that lacks coordination and has produced uneven educational outcomes in different provinces. Studying abroad can open immigration pathways in countries like Australia or Canada, while a foreign degree gives those that return a competitive edge on the Pakistani labor market. While enrollment ratios in some major cities are close to universal, Pakistan has Â 22.7 million out-of-school children (OOSC), as mentioned earlier. These qualifications provide graduates access not only to specialized employment but also to tertiary education programs, given that the curricula typically include the compulsory subjects of the national upper-secondary curriculum. Given that Pakistan is witnessing the largest population growth of youth in its history, with two-thirds of the population projected to be below the age of 30 for the next three decades, TVET is seen as perhaps the most critical education sector to address unemployment and develop a workforce capable of driving economic development. It also coordinates education policies between jurisdictions. United Nations. Even so, the global population of college-aged people is expected to reach 800 million by 2040. The federal government has primary oversight of both higher education and technical and vocational education (TVET). The main federal oversight body in higher education is the Higher Education Commission (HEC), a constitutionally established autonomous institution responsible for the regulation, accreditation, and funding of higher education in the country. â¦ There is little interest of affiliated colleges to have research-oriented courses. Among the most pressing shortcomings of Pakistani universities is a shortage of senior teaching staff. Since upper-secondary education programs are offered in different streams, an HSSC in a stream related to the intended major is a typical requirement as well. Six Pakistani institutions are among the top 1,000, with COMSATS the highest ranked (601â800). Current lists of recognized universities, campuses, authorized transnational providers and programs, as well as illegally operating institutions are available here. To modernize research in Pakistan and raise the qualifications profile of university faculty, the government supports this development with scholarship programs of considerable scale, considering Pakistanâs fiscal constraints. PIP: The scope of formal population education in Pakistan covers the entire academic system, beginning from the primary level to the university and professional colleges. General Aims 4. 1987;25(8):911-9. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(87)90261-9.  When comparing international student numbers, it is important to note that numbers provided by different agencies and governments vary because of differences in data capture methodology, definitions of âinternational student,â and types of mobility captured (credit, degree, etc.). According to UNESCO, the overall elementary NER in Pakistan stood at only 68 percent in 2018. Within the provinces themselves, the administration of education largely shifted from provincial governments to local district governments. Accessed February 2017. Five million of these are at the elementary level, and the numbers only increase at the middle and secondary school levels. About 68 percent of students at the lower-secondary level and 88 percent at the upper-secondary level attended public schools in 2017. Only 60 percent of its children complete their education through the fifth grade, while the others drop out for various reasons. Like the SSC exam, the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) examination (also referred to as âintermediate examâ) is administered in two parts at the end of grades 11 and 12. These disparities have a big impact on educational outcomes, including vast gaps in access to education and overall educational attainment. The General Certificate of Education O-Level Examination that was offered in Nigeria until 1989 has been replaced by a second annual SSC exam in November/December. The scope of formal population education in Pakistan covers the entire academic system, beginning from the primary level to the university and professional colleges. TVET programs are taught at technical secondary schools, trade schools, polytechnics, and technical colleges, most of them public institutions. In 1998, this figure stood at 32.5 percent. Pakistan jobs in 2020, Jobs Advertisement, Job job, Pakistan job websites,job hunting. A registry of qualifications is being developed but does not appear to be available publicly as of this writing. As discussed below, the current administration of Prime Minister Imran Khan also seeks to achieve greater standardization by introducing a common national school curriculum. A lack of trained teachers and teacher absenteeism are the other most often cited problems. To ensure systematic and comprehensive coverage of population education through the existing formal and nonformal education programs the government is planning to undertake in collaboration with the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and other bilateral and multilateral funding agencies. Currently the sixth most populous country in the world with 212 million people, Pakistan is characterized by one of the highest population growth rates worldwide outside of Africa. Recent government figures bring this into focusâmerely 54 percent of elementary schools have electricity, 67 percent have drinking water, and 68 percent have latrines. At the time of partition, the country had only one university which had less than 1,000 students enrolledâthe University of the Punjab in Lahore. If Pakistan manages to educate and skill this surging youth population, it could harness a tremendous youth dividend that could help to fuel the countryâs economic growth and modernization. total population) of Pakistan. Funding and support from other countries, including Saudi Arabia and Iran, also play a role. Already established are levels 1 to 4, which define secondary-level national vocational certificates (NVCs) designed to produce semi-skilled workers in a wide variety of vocations, ranging from automotive technicians to electrician or plumber. India, by comparison, spent 4.6 percent of its GDP on education in 2016. Problems have included perception as another name for family planning, lack of systematic and consistent planning for integrating population education, and a lack of funds. WENRâs policy is not to favor any given source over any other, but to try and be transparent about what we are reporting, and to footnote numbers which may raise questions about discrepancies. Popul Educ Asia Pac Newsl Forum. Get National Diploma ND, Higher National Diploma (HND), Undergraduate, Masters & PhD Research Works Global Corruption Report: Education. At least 18 credits coursework followed by research and dissertation. Whereas most affiliated colleges teach only undergraduate programs, these colleges offer both undergraduate and graduate programs. Research reveals co-ordination and collaboration strengths and weaknesses in population education. Pakistan has a secondary education system centered on high-stakes examinations and rote learning. It should be noted, however, that considerable variations in curricula may exist between jurisdictions, especially since the administration of the school system devolved from the federal government to the provinces in 2010. The education system of Pakistan is comprised of 260,903 institutions and is facilitating 41,018,384 students with the help of 1,535,461 teachers. As mentioned earlier, after independence, Pakistan then developed its own Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) which were tasked with developing and conducting final examinations at the ends of grades 9 to 12. Examples of the latter include the 10+3 Diploma in Nursing and Diploma of Associate Engineer (DAE)âqualifications that are examined by state boards of technical education and boards of nursing education. Global Corruption Report: Education. The majority of HEIs and tertiary students are clustered in the province of Punjab. Other indicators visualized on maps: (In English only, for now) Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) Contents. Despite this growth, however, overall participation rates in tertiary education remain extremely low in Pakistan: The countryâs tertiary GER stood at only 9 percent in 2018, compared with 29 percent in neighboring India and 21 percent in Bangladesh. The government of Prime Minster Imran Khan seeks to reduce the fragmentation and inequalities of Pakistanâs school system and create a modernized âuniform education system.â A National Curriculum Committee (NCC) has been tasked with coordinating standards between provinces and developing a Single National Curriculum (SNC) for school educationâa project scheduled to be completed by October 2020 for grades 1 to 8, by December 2021 for grades 9 and 10, and by December 2022 for grades 11 and 12. Overall education spending, including expenditures related to the school system, is low even by South Asian standards. For one, the precarious economic conditions and employment prospects in Pakistan are a major push factor for both international students and the hundreds of thousands of labor migrants leaving Pakistan each year. It does not include students on shorter study abroad exchanges, or those enrolled at the secondary level or in short-term language training programs, for instance. Meaning and Definition of Population Education: Most of the people agree ‘Population Education’ with education of the population. The world’s sixth most populous country, Pakistan contends with the risk of natural disasters, a large and growing youth bulge, and entrenched poverty and inequality, all of which pose significant challenges to delivering reproductive health services. The credit system stipulated by the HEC and used by most HEIs is a U.S.-style system. To become affiliated with DAIs, colleges must meet certain minimum requirements set forth by the HEC and the affiliating university, which determines the syllabi, conducts periodic examinationsâincluding annual progression exams and graduation examsâand awards the final degree. The system includes 180,846 public institutions and 80,057 private institutions. Bull Unesco Reg Off Educ Asia Pac. Education from The World Bank: Data. Abstract. They range from dysfunctional and dilapidated school facilities that lack sanitation or electricity, to underqualified teaching staff, widespread corruption, and tens of thousands of âghost teachersâ that sap public payrolls by not showing up for work. Note: In addition to these benchmark qualifications, universities offer a variety of shorter undergraduate-level diploma programs as well as postgraduate diplomas, which are mostly one year in duration and require a bachelorâs degree for admission. However, there are now renewed plans to bring madrasahs, several of which are funded by Saudi Arabia (Sunni schools) and Iran (Shia schools), under government control. Most common nomenclature used for name of credentials is Bachelor of (field of study), Five-year programs are offered in architecture, dentistry, homeopathy, law, medicine, pharmacy, veterinary science, and traditional systems of medicine (Unani, Ayurveda, and homeopathic medicine)*. iii) population education programmes and activities are planned and developed in consultation with the teachers, community leaders, students and concerned bureaus and specialists; iv) population education programme/project is an integral part of the curriculum development centers or of the Ministry of Education; By grade six, only 41 percent of girls participate in education, compared with 51 percent of boys. In 2019, the overall pass rate in the SSC exams of the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education was 84 percent, whereas the pass rate for the private Aga Khan University Examination Board was 96 percent with 46 percent of test takers achieving an overall grade of A or above. Short-cut students: From academic misconduct to academic integrity, In: Transparency International. The world’s sixth most populous country, Pakistan contends with the risk of natural disasters, a large and growing youth bulge, and entrenched poverty and inequality, all of which pose significant challenges to delivering reproductive health services. Nepal [Population education in countries of the region]. They include safety concerns, particularly in rural areas where students have to walk to school and rape of young girls is sadly not uncommon, as well as child marriage and a culture that has historically undervalued the education of young women. While Pakistan has created a tremendous amount of new doctoral programs over the past decade, growing numbers of Pakistani scholars are heading abroad to access higher quality education, primarily in fields like engineering and the sciences. ADVERTISEMENTS: After reading this article you will learn about the Population Education:- 1. 6.5 million Children are out of school and 40 % of students drop out before they reach grade 5 (primary completion). In the 5-9 age group, 5 million children are not enrolled in schools and after primary-school age, the number of OOSC doubles, with 11.4 million adolescents between … Crucially, Pakistan devotes comparatively few resources to education and trails regional countries like India or Nepal in education spending. Education: a solution for Pakistan The quality of education is as big a problem as lack of access to education starting from the primary level Fiza Farhan October 01, 2017 The elementary curriculum typically includes Urdu, English, regional languages, mathematics, science, social studies, and Islamiyat. Certification in medical specialties requires another three to five years of clinical studies, depending on the specialty. Whatâs more, since even public colleges are to some extent dependent on tuition fees, many only offer programs in popular fields of study that donât require large investments in facilities. While the integration of these refugees into Pakistanâs already overburdened and dysfunctional school system is a huge challenge, Pakistani authorities have undertaken at least some efforts to provide Afghans with access to higher education. Only a small fraction of Pakistanis participate in upper-secondary educationâmerely about a quarter of students transition from grade 10 to grade 11. In recent years, Pakistan has adopted increasingly modern methods of teaching and examination and has, following global trends, moved to a 12+4+2 structure. The education system would be truly related to the needs of the people of Pakistan. Holders of a Master of Law (LLM) degree can practice and are exempt from the period of training and examination. The project is expected to improve weather forecasting in Pakistan and facilitate sustainable management of around 80,000 hectares of forest area. Skills standards are developed at the national level by a Qualification Development Committee that is overseen by the National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC). The assessment of institutions is mostly based on the evaluation of institutional self-assessments and HEC site inspections. *Â Reflects duration of majority of programs in that field of study. Offered in many fields of study, most notably computer science, humanities, sciences and social sciences, Masterâs degrees, advanced graduate level programs in professional disciplines, Four-year programs are offered in agriculture, education, engineering, or nursing*. There is also a great deal of variety between age cohorts. The Joshua Project Progress Scale is an estimate of the progress of church planting among a people group, people cluster, country or language. TVET qualifications at level 5 (mostly 10+3 technical board diplomas like the DAE) through level 8 (TVET qualifications at the tertiary level) will eventually be defined and incorporated into the framework as well. For the most part, the examination certificates issued by the different boards are recognized by higher education institutions, government institutions, and employers nationwide. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, accessed February 2017, https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/publications/files/key_findings_wpp_2015.pdf. The previous grading scale was a percentage-based 0-100 scale akin to the secondary grading scale. Islamiyat (Islamic studies) is a core subject up through lower-secondary school and is seen as critical to the inculcation of Islamic values in both personal development and the formation of a national identity. Pakistan has the highest rate of urbanization in South Asia. Examples include the Karachi branch campus of the Irish Griffith College, and TNE programs in accounting offered by the British Oxford Brookes University in collaboration with the Association of Chartered Accountants (ACCA). English has been the main language of instruction at the elementary and secondary levels since colonial times. EdStats (Education Statistics) provides data and analysis on a wide range of education topics such as access, quality, learning outcomes, teachers, education expenditures, and education equality. Like neighboring India, Pakistan has a higher education system made up of relatively few degree-granting universities but close to 3,000 colleges and other teaching institutions that are affiliated with these universities. NLM While most Pakistani students are said to be self-funded, overseas scholarship programs have helped thousands of graduate students to pursue studies in the United States, the United Kingdom, Cuba, Germany, France, and various other countries in recent years. Primary: 22,650,000. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF International. There are also sizable numbers of international students from various countries coming to Pakistan to study at Islamic universities or madrasahs. Increase in population will also increase the problems. Meaning and Definition of Population Education 2. Education: a solution for Pakistan The quality of education is as big a problem as lack of access to education starting from the primary level Fiza Farhan October 01, 2017 Pakistanâs largest public university in terms of enrollments, and simultaneously one of the largest universities in the world, is Allama Iqbal Open University, an open distance education provider with 1.4 million students. The British Council, for instance, expects Pakistan to be among the top 10 growth countries worldwide until 2027, despite an overall cooling of international student mobility on a global scale. To improve this situation, a process to develop a National Vocational Qualification Framework (NVQF) was initiated in 2009 in collaboration with and funded by the European Union (EU) and the governments of the Netherlands, Norway, and, perhaps foremost, Germany, with its internationally recognized TVET system. These plans are partially driven by international pressure and concerns about political radicalization (see the section on madrasah education below). A passing score on the SSC examinations is required to progress to higher secondary education, which is two years in duration (grades 11 and 12) and provided by upper-secondary schools or so-called intermediate colleges, most of them public institutions. The middle school curriculum features the same subjects as the elementary curriculum, but additional languages like Arabic or Persian may be introduced. ADVERTISEMENTS: Population Education in India: Meaning, Objectives, Problems! Pakistan, a Muslim-majority country and home to over 221 million people, is trying to get girls the education they deserve. In Pakistan, school education is suffering due to many reasons. Higher Education in Nigeria and the Emergence of Private Universities. The father of the nation Quiad-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the main goal of the education system of Pakistan was to develop national character of Pakistani generation . In an attempt to curb expenditures, public universities in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have recently been barred from admitting new students altogether. Textbooks in Pakistan were written in 1975 following the concepts and guidelines provided in the new curricula. Global Corruption Report: Education. Recruitment and admissions: Fostering transparency on the path to higher education. Here again the results are devastating, particularly for girls, who are frequently kept at home to cook and do housework so that both parents can work to keep the family afloat. For the most part, Pakistan has a relatively consistent cluster of top institutions, most of them public, in terms of both domestic and international rankings. Masterâs degree with a minimum GPA of 3.0, GAT depending on the program. The four provinces are Baluchistan, Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which was until 2010 known as the North-West Frontier Province. Pakistan has almost 5.5 million children that are out of school, the second highest number in the world only after Nigeria. Like other countries on the Indian subcontinent, Pakistan used to have bachelorâs degree programs that were only two or three years in lengthâa short duration by international standards. Compulsory subjects include Urdu, English, Islamic education (civics for non-Muslim students), and Pakistan studies along with both required and elective courses in the specific stream. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of World Education Services (WES). Degree & above comprises fourteen or more years of education. 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